Heat Exchanger

We are the manufacturer and supplier of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger.These tube & shell heat exchanger are of superlative quality and are designed as per TEMA. Our tube & shell heat exchanger are available at competitive price range and is exported to variousclients around the world.

  • Efficient performance
  • Premium quality
  • User friendly operation
Length: 0.5 meter to 20 meters
Diameter: 0.05 meter to 2.0 meters
Test pressure: Upto 150 Kg/Cm2G
Materials: Copper, Admiralty Brass, Naval Brass, Cupro Nickel, Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Grades

  • Heat Exchanger
  • Heat Exchanger
  • Heat Exchanger
  • Heat Exchanger
  • Heat Exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another.
  • The media may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact.
  • They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment.
  • The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air.
Flow arrangement
  • There are three primary classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement.
  • In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side.
  • In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends.
  • The counter current design is the most efficient, in that it can transfer the most heat from the heat (transfer) medium per unit mass due to the fact that the average temperature difference along any unit length is higher.
  • In a cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.
  • For efficiency, heat exchangers are designed to maximize the surface area of the wall between the two fluids, while minimizing resistance to fluid flow through the exchanger.
  • The exchanger's performance can also be affected by the addition of fins or corrugations in one or both directions, which increase surface area and may channel fluid flow or induce turbulence.
  • The driving temperature across the heat transfer surface varies with position, but an appropriate mean temperature can be defined.
  • In most simple systems this is the "log mean temperature difference" (LMTD).
  • Sometimes direct knowledge of the LMTD is not available and the NTU method is used.
Double pipe heat exchanger
  • Double pipe heat exchangers are the simplest exchangers used in industries.
  • On one hand, these heat exchangers are cheap for both design and maintenance, making them a good choice for small industries.
  • But on the other hand, low efficiency of them beside high space occupied for such exchangers in large scales, has led modern industries to use more efficient heat exchanger like shell and tube or other ones.
  • But yet, since double pipe heat exchangers are simple, they are used to teach heat exchanger design basic to students and as the basic rules for modern and normal heat exchangers are the same, students can understand the design techniques much easier.
  • To start the design of a double pipe heat exchanger, the first step is to calculate the heat duty of the heat exchanger.
  • It must be noted that for easier design, it's better to ignore heat loss in heat exchanger for primary design.
  • The heat duty can be defined as the heat gained by cold fluid which is equal to the heat loss of the hot fluid.
Shell and tube heat exchanger
  • Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of series of tubes.
  • One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled.
  • The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required.
  • A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc.
  • Shell and tube heat exchangers are typically used for high-pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260 °C).
  • This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape.
  • Several thermal design features must be considered when designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers: There can be many variations on the shell and tube design.
  • Typically, the ends of each tube are connected to plenums (sometimes called water boxes) through holes in tubesheets.
  • The tubes may be straight or bent in the shape of a U, called U-tubes.
Tube Diameter:

Using a small tube diameter makes the heat exchanger both economical and compact. However, it is more likely for the heat exchanger to foul up faster and the small size makes mechanical cleaning of the fouling difficult. To prevail over the fouling and cleaning problems, larger tube diameters can be used. Thus to determine the tube diameter, the available space, cost and fouling nature of the fluids must be considered.

Tube thickness: The thickness of the wall of the tubes is usually determined to ensure:
  • There is enough room for corrosion.
  • That flow-induced vibration has resistance.
  • Axial strength.
  • Availability of spare parts.
  • Hoop strength (to withstand internal tube pressure).
  • Buckling strength (to withstand overpressure in the shell).
Tube length:

heat exchangers are usually cheaper when they have a smaller shell diameter and a long tube length. Thus, typically there is an aim to make the heat exchanger as long as physically possible whilst not exceeding production capabilities. However, there are many limitations for this, including space available at the installation site and the need to ensure tubes are available in lengths that are twice the required length (so they can be withdrawn and replaced). Also, long, thin tubes are difficult to take out and replace.

Tube pitch:

when designing the tubes, it is practical to ensure that the tube pitch (i.e., the centre-centre distance of adjoining tubes) is not less than 1.25 times the tubes' outside diameter. A larger tube pitch leads to a larger overall shell diameter, which leads to a more expensive heat exchanger.

Tube corrugation:

this type of tubes, mainly used for the inner tubes, increases the turbulence of the fluids and the effect is very important in the heat transfer giving a better performance.

Tube Layout:

refers to how tubes are positioned within the shell. There are four main types of tube layout, which are, triangular (30°), rotated triangular (60°), square (90°) and rotated square (45°). The triangular patterns are employed to give greater heat transfer as they force the fluid to flow in a more turbulent fashion around the piping. Square patterns are employed where high fouling is experienced and cleaning is more regular.

Baffle Design:

baffles are used in shell and tube heat exchangers to direct fluid across the tube bundle. They run perpendicularly to the shell and hold the bundle, preventing the tubes from sagging over a long length. They can also prevent the tubes from vibrating. The most common type of baffle is the segmental baffle. The semicircular segmental baffles are oriented at 180 degrees to the adjacent baffles forcing the fluid to flow upward and downwards between the tube bundles. Baffle spacing is of large thermodynamic concern when designing shell and tube heat exchangers. Baffles must be spaced with consideration for the conversion of pressure drop and heat transfer. For thermo economic optimization it is suggested that the baffles be spaced no closer than 20% of the shell's inner diameter. Having baffles spaced too closely causes a greater pressure drop because of flow redirection. Consequently having the baffles spaced too far apart means that there may be cooler spots in the corners between baffles. It is also important to ensure the baffles are spaced close enough that the tubes do not sag. The other main type of baffle is the disc and donut baffle, which consists of two concentric baffles. An outer, wider baffle looks like a donut, whilst the inner baffle is shaped like a disk. This type of baffle forces the fluid to pass around each side of the disk then through the donut baffle generating a different type of fluid flow. Fixed tube liquid-cooled heat exchangers especially suitable for marine and harsh applications can be assembled with brass shells, copper tubes, brass baffles, and forged brass integral end hubs.

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